Тема 8. Лексико -граматична тема: Phrasal verbs

Grammar In Use
• Modals: Obligation - Necessity - Prohibition - Suggestion
Grammar Reference
13 a) Match the verbs in bold to their meanings. Which express: obligation, prohibition, suggestion, necessity, lack of necessity?
1____You must hurry or you'll miss your appointment.
2____You ought to see your dentist for a check-up.
3____You must eat a balanced diet.
4____You need to drink about eight glasses of water every day.
5____You mustn't park here.
6____You don't have to study medicine to become a social worker.
7____You shouldn't go out in the sun without a hat.

8____In the UK you have (got) to be 18 to be able to vote.

A    This is very important: it is essential.
B    This is forbidden; you are not allowed to do it.
C    This is necessary.
D    I advise you not to do this.
E    This is a rule/law.
F    It would be a good idea to do this.
G    You can do this if you want to but it's not necessary.
H    It is important that you do this.

b) Use modals from above to write two things:
•    you are obliged to do • forbidden to do
•    necessary for you to do • you should do
I must tidy my room.
Fill in: (not) have to, should (n't), need, ought to or must.
1    Although you like spicy food, I think you.............use less chilii when cooking.
2    All kept out of children's reach.
3    To be healthy you................exercise regularly.
4    You lots of fruit and vegetables.
5    Mr have an operation immediately.
6    You..........check the expiry date on food labels.
7    We ...........replace proper meals with junk food.
8    I can stay in bed late tomorrow as I ......... work.

•    Permission - Request - Ability -Possibility
Grammar Reference
 Which modal verbs express: permission, lack of permission, ability, lack of ability, request, possibility?
1    Could/Would you please help me carry this box?
2    You may/can borrow my bicycle as long as you promise to bring it back before 6pm.
3    Jason can speak French and German.
4    Carol may/might/could help you if she's free.
5    You can't use the computer.
6    You can't/mustn't/may not eat or drink in the library.

 Use the modal verbs in bold to make up sentences:
•    giving/refusing permission.
•    making a request.
•    talking about an ability you have/don't have.
•    expressing possibility.

In teams, use modal verbs to make up sentences for the following situations. Each correct sentence gets 1 point. The team with the most points is the winner.
•    Your friend needs to lose weight.
•    Your friend wants to save money.
•    Your friend is planning to travel abroad.
•    Your friend has no job.
Team A SI: You must cut down on fats.
• Past & Perfect Modals
Grammar Reference

Recjd tne sentences and underline the correct modal verb.
Nina didn't need to/needn't have borrow my car because Dad gave her a lift.
2    Tina should have/couldn't go to work yesterday because she was ill.
3    Mary ought not to have/didn't need to eaten so many sweets.
4    Ann ought to have/needn't have called an ambulance. It was only a minor injury.
5    Pat didn't need to/ought to have taken some malaria tablets with her so that she would be protected against the disease.

Match the sentences to their explanations.
Although it was necessary, she didn't do it.
She was unable to do it.
It was wrong of her to do it, but she did it.
It wasn't necessary but she did it.
It wasn't necessary so she didn't do it.

Fill in: didn't have to, needn't have, should(n't) have, ought (not) to have or could (n't) have.
1    You...............gone to bed earlier if you wanted to catch the early train.
2    Helen............... eaten so much ice cream. It always gives her indigestion.
3    You............bought a ticket. I had an extra one just in case.
4    I wasn't well prepared for the exam. I'm sure I .....................passed it.
5 pay any medical expenses as he's got private health insurance.
6    Harriet..............visited the dentist because she didn't have any cavities.

Grammar Reference
• Making deductions

Study the table.

                  Certainty                        Uncertainty
Present      must be can't be              might/may/could be
Past          must have can't have        might/may/could have

In pairs, think of what could have happened
in the following situations.
1    Tim had the right qualifications, but he didn't get the job. He might have been inexperienced.
2    They were planning a party, but it was postponed.
3    Tony studied hard, but he failed the exam.
4    They were expecting Ann to attend the meeting, but she didn't turn up.

Virginia Evans, Neil O'Sullivan, Click On 4

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