2c Grammar in Use

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английский язык

1 Read the example. Rewrite the sentences in a more informal style.

   Note: where = in/at which
   when = on which

>  This is the street where/in which he lives. (formal)
    This is the street (which) he lives in. (more usual)

1    Do you know the company for which she works?
2    The boys with whom we went out were my brother's classmates.
3    The office in which she works is nearby.
4    He's the man to whom we gave the parcel.
5    Tomorrow is the day on which I go on holiday.


Think of people, objects in your classroom. Play in teams, as in the example.

>Team AS1: I can see someone who's got long fair hair.
   Team  BS1: Olga. I can see something which is black and white etc.

Relative clauses>> Grammar Reference

2  a Fill in the relative pronouns/adverbs, adding commas where necessary. Which clauses are defining, non-defining? In which could the relative be omitted?


1 Buckingham Palace ..... the royal family live is a popular tourist attraction in London.
2  Jenny ............. brother is in my class won the beauty contest.
3  The  boys ....... were sitting behind us are in the same class as me.
4  The bous ....... he wore to the party was very expensive.
5  People ........ dress smartly make a good impression.
6    London .............. has a population of over 7 million is a multi-cultural city.
7    The woman ................. just entered the room is our new teacher.
8    The office.................... my mother works is in the centre of the city.

b Fill in the relative pronouns/adverbs.

The person 1)......... I remember most from my childhood is my grandfather. He was my mother's father and she used to take me to visit him every Thursday evening. The rooms in his house, 2)........... was a lot older than the one 3).............. we lived, were very small, so if he had a lot of visitors, I would go into the garden to play. I remember one day 4)........     my cousin Graham, 5)............. was older than me, was also there, and he suggested we pick some apples from the tree 6).............was at the end of the garden. Unfortunately, Granddad saw us and he angrily demanded to know 7)    ........ idea it had been to take the apples without asking him first. Graham and I were terrified because we had never seen him so angry before. I never went near that apple tree again.

Clauses of purpose

3 Read the examples. Which words do we use to ij express purpose?

1    I'll invite her so that she won't feel hurt.
2    He switched on the TV to watch the news.
3    I'll get my umbrella in case it rains.
4    He is saving money with a view to buying a car.
5    Scissors are for cutting paper.
4 a  Join the sentences. Use the words in brackets.

1    I'm taking a coat. It might get cold later, (in case)

> I'm taking a coat in case it gets cold later.

2    He's going to bed early. He doesn't want to be tired tomorrow, (so that)
3    He is whispering. He doesn't want to wake his brother up. (so as not to)
4    We're trying to save up some money. We want to buy a house, (with a view to)
5    These are nail clippers. You use them to cut toenails, (for)

b Choose three of the sentences In Ex. 4a and rewrite them in as many ways as possible.

> I'm taking a coat so that I don't get cold later. I'm taking a coat so as not to get cold later etc.

5 Paul and his friends are going on a mountain trip. Look at what they've taken and make sentences using "in case".

camera                     tent              sandwiches

water                        map               jackets

Clauses of result > Grammar Reference

6  a Read the extract from Tom's diary. Which of the words in bold go with: countable nouns, uncountable nouns, adjectives, adverbs, few/little/much/many/a lot of?


5 April

... it was such a lovely spot that we decided to camp there. After we had put up our teat, we went to explore the area. There was such lovely scenery that we took lots of photos. The place was so peaceful with so few people around that we couldn't believe it. The birds were singing so beautifully that it was as if we were somewhere exotic. There were such a lot of wild flowers that the air smelled ...

b Use the ideas below to make up a story entitled A disastrous party.

long way         noisy     many people         boged

awfyl food    loud music      bad time    cold

>S1 : To start with, it was such a long way from ....

7 a Read the examples. Which words/phrases introduce clauses of reason? Which are followed by a clause/noun?

 The flight was cancelled ...
 due to/because of heavy rain,
 because it was raining heavily,
 since it was raining heavily,
 due to/because of the fact that it
 was raining heavily.

b Form as many sentences as possible using the ideas below, as in the example.

1    They didn't go out - snow
2    She didn't enjoy the party - crowded
3    Ann couldn't walk - broken leg
4    He couldn't sleep - noise
5    The road was closed - accident
6    The trains were cancelled - strike
7    He didn't go to school - ill
8    He gave up his job- - bad health

> They didn't go out due to the fact it was snowing/ because it was snowing!since it was snowing/due to snow.

Phrasal verbs (put)

8 Fill in: off, on, up, down, up with. Check in Appendix 2. Make sentences using the phrasals.

1    He put me..... while I was in London, (offer hospitality)
2    Due to snow we put ............. our trip, (postpone)
3    Put ...........    your jacket. It's cold, (dress oneself)
4    I can't put .............. rude people, (tolerate)
5    Jon puts Mary front of others, (insult)

Dependent prepositions

9  Fill in: for, to, of, about or on. Check in Appendix 1. Make sentences using the phrases.

1  She's a good!
2  He never pays attention........what I say.
3  Jo made quite an impression at the meeting.
4  Paula insisted...........going to the disco.
5  He always boasts    .............his achievements.

Sentence transformations

10 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use two to five words.

1    Larry was born in that house. in That............Larry was born.
2    We enjoyed our holiday a lot. good We had........... while on holiday.
3    The suitcase is too heavy for me to lift, such It's...........that I can't lift it.
4    Take your gloves, it may get cold, gets Take your gloves..........cold.
5    The concert was postponed because it was snowing heavily. off The concert was.......snow.

Английский язык. 11 класс : учеб. для общеобразоват. учреждений / [О.В. Афанасьева, Дж.Дули, И.В. Михеева и др.]. - 2-е изд., доп. и перераб. - М.: Express Publishing : Просвещение, 2009. - 244 с. : ил. - (Английский в фокусе).

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