4c Grammar in Use

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Grammar in Use

The passive >> Grammar Reference

We use the passive voice to give emphasis to" the action rather than the person who did it.
All employees must sign the form. (Active) The form must be signed by ail employees. (Passive)

1 a   Read the text and list the passive forms in the text. What are the active forms?

Approximately Ј2 million pounds' worth of damage has been caused by a fire that broke out at Carson High School last night. The fire was still being fought in the early hours of this morning and Fire Chief Jack Bell said it was one of the worst fires he had ever seen. The debris is being cleared away today and an investigation into the cause of the fire will be started. Until the cause of the fire is discovered, the police are treating it as arson. Reports had been made the night before that two suspicious characters were seen in the area. Their identity has yet to be discovered. Anyone who has information which may help the police should contact their local police station.

b  Which word do we use to introduce the agent? (i.e. the person/thing that performed the action) When do we omit it? Find examples in the text.

2   Rewrite the sentences in the passive.

1    Someone stole my brother's bike yesterday.
2    I made this soup with carrots and coriander.
3    Who is catering Pam's party?
4    They will have finished their house by May.
5    The police arrested the thieves.
6    Sam hates people telling him what to do.
7    Maria writes the 'Fifi Fairy' books.
8    Jack should make an apology.

3   Form sentences using the passive.

1    I think there's somebody behind us. (we/follow)

> We are being followed.

2    He's very angry, (hate/keep waiting)
3    It's private parking, (parking/not allow)
4    This is very serious, (something/need do/ immediately)
5    Please go now. (I want/leave alone)
6    Have you heard the news? (Mayor/shoot)
7    Stella didn't go to the party, (she/not/invite)
8    Can I help you, sir? (No, thanks/I/serve)
9    He hasn't received the parcel, (it may/send/ wrong address)
10 They pulled down the old factory, (cinema complex/build/next May)

4  Change the text below into the passive. In which examples is the person who does it (the agent) not needed?


Scientists in China have discovered an unusual way of predicting earthquakes - snakes! Experts are observing snakes at local snake farms to see if their behaviour changes before an earthquake. The scientists link cameras to a broadband Internet connection. They believe that the snakes can sense earthquakes from 120 km away, three to five days before they happen. They abandon their nests or even smash into walls to escape. Because frequent earthquakes strike China, scientists must find a reliable method of predicting them to avoid the terrible injury and loss of life that they cause.

5 Study the table below and say how personal  and impersonal passive constructions are formed. Then, turn the sentences (1-7) into the passive, as in the example.

They think that she is very ill. They say that he was a genius.   
She is thought to be very ill. He is said to have been a genius.   It is thought that she is very ill. It is said that he was a genius.

1    They believe that she is resting at home.

> She is believed to be resting at home.
    It is believed that she is resting at home.

2    The newspapers report that the doctor made a mistake in the diagnosis.
3    Scientists expect the tsunami to hit at 8 am.
4    They know that she has a difficult character.
5    They say that a monster lives in a lake in Scotland.
6    They believe that Andrea was treated very badly.
7    Doctors think that the number of cases of


6    Match the sentences (a-b) to the pictures (1-2). Which of the sentences means that someone is doing something for someone else?


7  Write sentences in the causative, as in the example.

1    A nurse took off Sean's cast this morning.
2    The doctor is examining Sarah's hand. Sarah .............
3    Greg's mum will shorten his jacket. Greg..............    
4    A hairstylist is going to do Sylvia's hair for the wedding. Sylvia    ................
5    My mum put a bandage on my ankle. I    ...............
6    Liz has just been to the optician's for an eye test. Liz..................    
7    Someone comes to mow our lawn once a week. We....................    
8    Someone had repaired the roof before they moved in. They.........................


8  Read the examples. Then rephrase the following using have, get or make.

>  Frank's mother made him go to the dentist.
     Michelle got her friend to do her homework for
     her. (persuaded)
     Mary had her brother collect her from the station.

1    John persuaded Ann to see a doctor.
2    Julie insisted that Tony have a blood test.
3    The scientist asked his assistant to tidy up the laboratory.
4    The nurse managed to convince the patient to swallow the medicine.
5    Madeline will ask Mike to take her to the dentist.
6    Sam asked the doctor to look at his injured leg.
7    I'm going to convince Sarah to lend me her jacket.

Dependent prepositions >> Grammar Reference

9   Fill in: of, in, for, from, to. Check in Appendix 1. Make sentences using the phrases.

1    Jo has been complaining................back pain.
2    She's allergic............cats.
3    It took him ages to recover    .............. the accident.
4    We heard Mike was accident.
5    Pete had to be treated    ..................... exhaustion after the expedition.
6    Nancy! You're spots!

Phrasal verbs (go)

10  Fill in: on, away, into, through, ahead.   Check in Appendix 2. Make sentences using them.

1    Dan didn't want to go................. the details of his  illness, (discuss in detail)
2    He went.............. two painful operations after the accident, (experience)
3    I wish this awful headache would go...............! (disappear)
4    If you go................driving without wearing your glasses, you will
        have an accident,   (continue)
5    Pat decided not to go .............. with the operation, (proceed)

Sentence transformations

11 Complete the second sentence so that it  means the same as the first. Use the word in bold. Use two to five words.

1    Helen insisted that Bill drive after the party, made Helen...........after the party.
2    They reported that three people were killed in the accident.
         have Three people the accident.
3    They have knocked down the old factory at last.
         been The old last.
4    She arranged for a tow truck to collect her car.
        had She.....................a tow truck.
5    They will perform the operation tomorrow,
        be The operation ........ tomorrow.

Английский язык. 11 класс : учеб. для общеобразоват. учреждений / [О.В. Афанасьева, Дж.Дули, И.В. Михеева и др.]. - 2-е изд., доп. и перераб. - М.: Express Publishing : Просвещение, 2009. - 244 с. : ил. - (Английский в фокусе).

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