Гипермаркет знаний>>География>>География 10 класс>>География: Австралия
Synopsis "Australia" .
Australia is the sixth-largest country in the world by total area. Its square is 7682.3 thousand of km2. Canberra is the capital of Commonwealth of Australia. Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy with the population in 23.1 million people. Australian dollar (AUD) is a national currency of Australia.
Now Australia is an independent country which is in British Commonwealth of Nations. On 1 January 1901 the six colonies were federated to form the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has six states - New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (QLD), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS), Victoria (VIC) and Western Australia (WA) - and two major mainland territories - the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT).
The main features of economic and geographical location of Australia are:
- occupy the territory of entire mainland of the Australian continent located in the Southern hemisphere;
- remoteness from other world's regions: 3.5 thousand km to South-Eastern Asia, 11-15 thousand km to America and 21 thousand km to Europe;
- surrounded by the Indian ocean at the North and East and by the Pacific ocean at the West and South;
- collaboration in British Commonwealth of Nations;
- Supreme executive authority is vested by the Constitution of Australia in the queen, but the power to exercise it is conferred by the Constitution specifically on the Governor-General.
Australia is a wealthy country with the rich natural resources. But Australia has very poor water resources.
Natural resources of Australia:
- Mineral resources: coal, uranium ore, nickel, lead, zinc, silver, gold, copper, bauxites and iron ore;
- Recreation resources: ecological and health resort;
- Water resources: rich reserves of groundwater, but 60% of territories are drainless area;
- Land resources: different soils, the most common are reddish-brown, brown and grey- brown soils;
- Forest resources: 4% of territories are occupied by forest concentrated in the slope of Great Dividing Range.
Australia is the southern country with a tropical climate. The deserts, semidesertic and dehydrated steppes are occupied the most part of Australia.
- Flat country;
- Mountains are occupied 5% of territory.
- Arid region;
- Deserts are occupied 40% of territory;
- Precipitation falls less than 250 mm per year;
- Average temperature is +12-18C in July and +20-30 in January;
- Mediterranean climate is in South-East and in South-West.
Structure of industry of Australia is quite various:
1. Mineral resource industry:
• 33% of global precious stones mining
• 30% of global production diamonds
• 14% of global production uranium
• 13% of global gold mining
• oil extraction provides 2/3 own needs
2. Energy sector:
• production of electricity is 10.000 kilowatt per person
• thermal power-station with brown coal – 90%, hydropower in mountain rivers – 10%
• unlimited possibilities of ferrous metallurgy
• smelting of steel and cast iron is 6-7 million ton
• production of lead and zinc
• 7,2% of global production aluminum
4. Engineering industry:
• 1st place in cost of industrial production
• automobile industry, shipbuilding, agricultural machinery, railcars and locomotives
5. Chemical industry:
• petrochemistry is a leading branch of industry
• production of mineral fertilizers, superphosphates, pesticides, sulfuric acid, plastics and artificial resins
6. Light industry: textile, clothing, leather and foot-wear industry
7. Food industry is based on own raw materials
8. Export of meat-preserving and sugar produce.
Australia is a country of migratory capitalism. Australia has complicated population structure that mainly consists of emigrants.
Agriculture is the important branch of industry for Australia. Animal husbandry takes the main place and gives 2/3 cost of agricultural products. Country has got huge livestock population of sheep and deals with breeding of bovine animals.
Growing of wheat, cotton, tobacco and cane takes the lead role in the plant growing.
Australia is able to provide itself totally with food stuff. This country is one of the biggest exporters of food.
Transport of Australia:
• Marine (sea) transport
• Railway transport
• Automobile (motor) transport
• Air transport
But the main international cargo (freight) transport is marine transport which allows carrying out intercontinental transportation Australian raw materials and produce of agriculture.
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