Geography, 8th grade
The plan of lessons for new school year on the subject of Geography, 8th grade
GEOGRAPHY OF UKRAINE INTRODUCTION
1. Physical geography of Ukraine, subject and methods of researches.
2. Modern administrative-territorial arrangement.
3. Formation of the territory of Ukraine. Acquaintance with modern administrative-territorial arrangement.
UKRAINE AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCHES
Subject 1. PHYSIOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF UKRAINE
4.Extreme points and sizes of territory. Geographical position, borders. The geographical centre of Ukraine.
5. Arrangement of the territory of Ukraine by time zones.
6. Practical work: 1. Drawing of extreme points on the contour map, the geographical centre of Ukraine and borders of neighboring countries. Definition of position of Ukraine according to time zones.
Subject 2. SOURCES OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION
8. Expedition and stationary researches of natural environment and natural resources. Tourist trips, excursions, regional study researches. Museum expositions, exhibitions. Geographical encyclopedias, directories, dictionaries, calendars. Geographical periodicals. Geographical descriptions in works of art, mass media, including audiovisual media, etc. 9. Maps as a source of geographical knowledge, their contents and purpose.
10. Cartographical projections, distortion of areas, forms, corners, distances. Ways of representation of geographical objects and phenomenon on maps.
11. Types of maps. Topographic maps and their practical use. Definition of directions, distances and heights at certain spot according to maps. Geographical atlases. Electronic maps and atlases.
13. Practical work: 2. Description of place and resolution of problems according to educational topographic maps.
14. Generalization on the subject “SOURCES OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION”.
Subject 3. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCHES OF THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE
15-16. Geographical information about the territory of Ukraine in writings of antique geographers “Primary Chronicle”, annals. First Ukrainian maps. Research of natural environment and natural resources of Ukraine in ХVІІІ-ХІХ centuries. Geographical researches of Ukraine in ХХ century.
17-18. Role in study of nature and economy of Ukraine of V.Vernadskyy, P.Tutkovskyy, S.Rudnytskyy, G.Vysotskyy, P.Pogrebnyak, B.Sreznevskyy, V.Bondarchuk, K.Voblyy, O.Dibrova, V.Kubiyovych, M.Palamarchuk and other scientists. Modern geographical researches. The geographical encyclopedia of Ukraine.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES OF UKRAINE
Subject 1. TECTONIC STRUCTURES
19. Tectonic map of Ukraine. The characteristics of the basic tectonic structures. Interrelation of the main forms of relief with tectonic structures.
Subject 2. GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE
20. Geological map of Ukraine. Age and distributions of rocks. Geochronological table. Features of geological structure of main tectonic areas of Ukraine. Distribution of quaternary (anthropogenic) sediments.
21. Paleogeographic conditions. Change of natural environment of the territory of Ukraine during Archaean, Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Neozoic eras. Paleogeographic conditions of anthropogene.
Subject 3. RELIEF. GEOMORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE
22. Physical map of Ukraine. General plan of surface structure, spread of lowlands, heights, mountains and river valleys. The Eastern European plain. Brief characteristics of lowlands and heights.
23. Ranges of Ukraine. The Ukrainian Carpathian mountains and their ranges: External Carpathians, Vododilno-Verkhovynski Carpathians, Polonynsko-Chornogorski Carpathians, Rakhivski and Chychvyn mountains, Volcanic Carpathians. The Crimean Mountains and their ranges: Main, Internal and External ranges.
24. Laws of distribution of main forms of relief and relief types.
Subject 4. MINERAL AND RAW RESOURCES
25. Variety and riches of mineral and raw resources, their relation to geological structure. Laws of distribution, characteristics and estimation of fuel, ore and nonmetallic minerals. Fuel minerals: coal, oil, natural gas, peat. Short characteristics of Donetsk, Lviv-Volynsk and Dnieper coal basins. Pre-Carpathian, Dnieper-Donetsk, Prychornomorsko-Krumska oil-and-gas areas. Perspective oil-and-gas areas, resources of shelf of sea sites. The basic deposits of oil and gas. Deposits of shale oils and peat.
26. Ore minerals. Characteristics of Kryvorozhskyy, Kerchenskyy, Kremenchugskyy and Bilozerskyy iron ore basins, Nikopol manganous ore area. Deposits of uranium ores. Deposits of ores of mercury, titan, nickel, aluminium raw materials and other metals. Gold ore areas of Ukraine.
27. Nonmetallic minerals. Deposits of nonmetallic raw materials for metallurgical and ceramic industry, manufacture of construction materials, deposits of precious jewels. Mineral waters and muds. Provision of Ukraine with mineral raw resources, their economic estimation, the basic solutions for rational use and protection.
Subject 5. CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND RESOURCES
28. The general characteristics of climate in Ukraine. The basic climatic factors: solar radiation and its distribution over the territory, including the concept of radiating balance.
29. Atmosphere circulation; subjacent surface. Interaction of climate forcing factors.
30. Climatic maps. Basic climatic indicators, including the concept of humidifying factor and annual course and distribution. Seasonal features of climate of Ukraine. Climatic resources.
31. Climatic zones and areas. Characteristic types of climate of different parts of Ukraine.
32. Weather and dangerous weather phenomena. Weather forecast. Weather map. Meteorological stations, weather bureau, hydro-meteorological service of Ukraine.
Subject 6. INTERNAL WATERS
33. Surface waters. The general hydrographic features of the territory of Ukraine.
34. The basic river basins and their characteristics. Character of water mode of rivers (fall, slope; water mode, alimentation, water expenses in river, annual river run-off). Work of rivers, channel formation, including concept of basis of erosion, solid river run-off. The largest river systems of Ukraine.
35. Lakes and their types, estuaries, features of hydrological mode. Characteristics of the largest lakes.
36. Underground waters. The main artesian basins of Ukraine and their characteristics. Bogs, their types and distributions. The reasons of swamping. Artificial water objects and their economic purpose. Channels: Siverskyy, Donets-Donbass, Dnieper-Kryvyy Rig, Dnieper-Donbass, Northern-Crimean.
37. Water balance and water resources of Ukraine, ways of their rational use and protection.
38. Practical work: 4. Marking on the contour map of rivers, lakes, water basins, channels, bogs. The analysis of provision with water resources of different territories of Ukraine.
Subject 7. SOILS AND LAND RESOURCES
39. Conditions of soil formation. The basic genetic types of soils, laws of their distribution on flat part of Ukraine and in mountains. Map of soils of Ukraine. Characteristics of physical and chemical properties of soils. Economic use of soils.
40. Land resources of Ukraine. The basic measures for rational use and protection of land resources. Practical work: 5. The analysis of laws of distribution of soils over the territory of Ukraine.
41. Land resources of Ukraine. The basic measures for rational use and protection of land resources.
Subject 8. VEGETATIVE COVER
42. The variety of floristic composition, law of flora distribution. Endemic and endangered species. Latitudinal and high-attitude zoning of vegetative cover. Flora of woods, steppes, meadows, bogs, reservoirs, mountains, the South coast of Crimea.
43. The red book of Ukraine. Plants brought to the red book of Ukraine. The vegetative groups brought to the Green book of Ukraine. Influence of economic activities on vegetation. Vegetative resources, their protection and reproduction.
Subject 9. FAUNA
44. The variety of species composition of animals. The fauna composition of woods, meadows, steppes, bogs, reservoirs. Acclimatization and reacclimatization of animals.
45. Human influence on fauna. Animals brought to the Red book of Ukraine. Animal resources of Ukraine, measures for their reproduction and protection.
NATURAL COMPLEXES AND PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS
Subjects 1. NATURAL AND TERRITORIAL COMPLEXES
46. Natural and territorial complexes (NTC), conditions of their development and characteristic features. Interactions of factors and components forming NTC. Landscapes and their classification. Influences of human economic activities on landscapes.
Subjects 2. PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS
47. Concept of physiographic division into districts. Map of physiographic division into districts of Ukraine. Scientific and practical value of natural division into districts.
Subjects 3. NATURAL ZONES
48. Zones of mixed woods. Geographical position, borders and sizes. Characteristic features of natural complexes: distribution of sandy materials, plain surfaces, excessive moisture, bogginess, low natural soil fertility, forest coverage. Modern landscapes. Territories of nature protection.
49. Forest-steppe zones. Geographical position, borders and sizes. Characteristic features of natural complexes and resources.
50. Unfavorable natural processes: wind and water erosion, salinity, etc. Zone distribution into natural countries, their characteristics. Territories of nature protection.
51. Steppe zones. Geographical position, borders and sizes. The main features of natural environment.
52. Distribution into sub-zones. Unfavorable natural processes. Territories of nature protection.
53. Practical work: 6. Drawing up of the comparative characteristics of natural zones of Ukraine (at one’s discretion).
Subjects 4. MOUNTAINOUS NATURAL COUNTRIES
54. The Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. Geographical position, borders and sizes. The general features of natural environment.
55. Altitude zoning of landscapes. Natural phenomena and processes: water erosion, destructive flooding, mudflows, snow avalanches. Distribution into natural areas.
56. Territories of nature protection. Economic estimation of natural resources. The main measures for rational use and protection of natural environment and natural resources.
57. The Crimean mountains. Geographical position, borders, sizes. Features of natural environment and natural resources. Altitude zoning.
58. Unfavorable natural processes. Distribution into natural areas.
59. Territories of nature protection. The main measures for rational use and protection of natural environment and natural resources.
Subjects 5. NATURAL COMPLEXES OF SEAS SURROUNDING UKRAINE
60. The physiographic characteristic of natural complex of the Black sea. Problems of use and protection of its waters.
61. The physiographic characteristic of natural complex of the Sea of Azov. Problems of use and protection of its waters.
USE OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES AND THEIR PROTECTION
Subjects 1. GEO-ECOLOGIC SITUATION IN UKRAINE
62. Concept of “geo-ecologic situation”. The main environment pollutants. Failure on the Chernobyl atomic power station and condition of environment.
63. Influences of geo-ecologic situation on the population in Ukraine. The legislation on ecological situation in Ukraine.
Subject 2. USE AND PROTECTION OF NATURAL ENVORONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES
64. Legislative acts about nature reserve fund of Ukraine. Nature reserve fund. The national ecological network of Ukraine.
65. Environment monitoring in Ukraine. The main measures for rational use and preservation of environment in Ukraine.
66. Practical work: 7. The map analysis of geo-ecologic situation in Ukraine. Drawing on the contour map of main nature protection objects of Ukraine.
The complete list of the school program: geography, foreign literature, mathematics...